Model illustrates progression to MDS, AML



Induced pluripotent stem cells
Image by James Thomson
Researchers say they have created a model that shows the step-by-step progression from normal blood cells to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The team generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines capturing disease stages that included preleukemia, low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), high-risk MDS, and AML. The researchers then used... [Read Article]

Genetic profiling can guide HSCT in MDS, team says



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Micrograph showing MDS

Genetic profiling can be used to determine which patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are likely to benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), according to research published in NEJM. Targeted sequencing of 129 genes revealed mutations that, after adjustment for clinical variables, were associated with shorter survival and/or relapse after HSCT. ... [Read Article]

Azathioprine may increase risk of MDS, AML



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Azathioprine tablets

Results of a large, retrospective study suggest that taking azathioprine, a drug commonly used to treat autoimmune disease, may increase a person’s risk of developing myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Researchers analyzed data on more than 40,000 patients with 27 common autoimmune diseases and found that azathioprine use was significantly... [Read Article]

Targeting disease stem cells in AML, MDS



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Leukemia stem cells
Image by Robert Paulson

The cell surface molecule CD99 occurs more frequently than normal on stem cells responsible for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), according to research published in Science Translational Medicine. Building on this discovery, researchers designed anti-CD99 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In vitro and in vivo experiments ... [Read Article]

Study reveals potential therapeutic targets for MDS



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Micrograph showing MDS

Preclinical research has revealed potential therapeutic targets for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Investigators found evidence to suggest that TRAF6, a toll-like receptor effector with ubiquitin ligase activity, plays a key role in MDS. So TRAF6 and proteins regulated by TRAF6 may be therapeutic targets for MDS. Daniel Starczynowski, PhD, of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical... [Read Article]

Predicting therapy-related myeloid neoplasms



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Andy Futreal, PhD
Photo courtesy of
MD Anderson Cancer Center

Clonal hematopoiesis could be used as a predictive marker to identify cancer patients at risk of developing therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs), according to researchers. The team conducted a case-control study, which showed that patients who developed t-MNs—acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes—were significantly... [Read Article]

Decitabine produces responses in high-risk MDS, AML



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Cancer patient
receiving chemotherapy
Photo by Rhoda Baer

Patients with TP53-mutated myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may benefit from treatment with decitabine, according to a study published in NEJM. All patients in this study who had TP53 mutations responded to decitabine. Although these responses were not durable, the patients’ median... [Read Article]