Auto-FMT restores gut microbiota after HSCT

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Gut bacteria
A randomized, controlled study of 25 patients has demonstrated that an autologous fecal microbiota transplant (auto-FMT) can restore beneficial gut bacteria depleted during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (auto-HSCT), according to researchers. They reported that auto-FMT is a safe and effective way to help replenish the beneficial bacteria to near baseline levels within... [Read Article]
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FDA grants rezafungin QIDP and fast track designations

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Photomicrograph of C albicans.
Photo from CDC.gov
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDO) and fast track designations for rezafungin, an injection for the prevention of invasive fungal infections in adults undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Rezafungin is a novel antifungal echinocandin being developed by Cidara Therapeutics... [Read Article]
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Placenta-derived product receives orphan designation for HSCT

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HSCT preparation
Photo by Chad McNeeley
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan designation to PLX-R18 for the treatment of graft failure and incomplete hematopoietic recovery following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). PLX-R18 consists of placenta-derived, mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells that are designed to be administered to patients without the... [Read Article]
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NGS can predict AML relapse after HSCT

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Bone marrow smear
from AML patient
Image from Armed Forces
Institute of Pathology
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be used to predict relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), according to research published in Blood. Researchers found that patients with a higher variant allele frequency (VAF) 21 days after... [Read Article]
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Sequencing informs prognosis after HSCT in MDS

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HSCT preparation
Photo by Chad McNeeley
Gene sequencing early after transplant may provide important prognostic information in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), according to a new study. Patients who had disease-associated mutations in the bone marrow 30 days after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) were significantly more likely to experience disease progression and have lower... [Read Article]
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Prophylaxis reduces bacteremia in some kids

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Agar plate showing
staphyloccus infection
Photo by Bill Branson
In a phase 3 study, levofloxacin prophylaxis significantly reduced bacteremia in children with acute leukemias who received intensive chemotherapy. However, the risk of bacteremia was not significantly reduced with levofloxacin in another cohort of children who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Sarah Alexander,... [Read Article]
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Team identifies potential immunotherapy target for AML

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Ben Vincent, MD
Photo from the University
of North Carolina
New research could aid the development of immunotherapies tailored to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are undergoing stem cell transplant (SCT). Researchers found they could use genetic sequencing and computer software to identify minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) known to occur in AML. The... [Read Article]
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New guidelines on antimicrobial prophylaxis

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Cancer patient
receiving treatment
Photo by Rhoda Baer
Experts have published updated guidelines on antimicrobial prophylaxis for adults with cancer-related immunosuppression. The guidelines include antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral prophylaxis recommendations, along with additional precautions, such as hand hygiene, that may reduce infection risk. The guidelines were developed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)... [Read Article]
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Mechanism of cGVHD response to ECP still unclear

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Micrograph showing GVHD
Image from PLOS ONE
A prospective study did not reveal the mechanism driving response to extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). However, researchers did find that responses occurred independent of risk factors, and results suggested that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are not the dominant mechanism of response to... [Read Article]
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OMS721 receives orphan designation for use in HSCT

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HSCT preparation
Photo by Chad McNeeley
The European Commission has granted orphan designation to OMS721 for use in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). OMS721 is a monoclonal antibody targeting MASP-2, the effector enzyme of the lectin pathway of the complement system. Omeros Corporation is developing OMS721 as a treatment for HSCT-associated thrombotic... [Read Article]
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FDA grants fast track designation to dilanubicel

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Cord blood donation
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted fast track designation to dilanubicel (NLA101) for use in patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant. Dilanubicel is a universal-donor, ex-vivo-expanded hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell product. It is intended to induce short-term hematopoiesis, which lasts until a patient’s... [Read Article]
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A new way to expand HSCs for UCB transplant

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Cord blood donation
Photo courtesy of NHS
Researchers say they have discovered a new approach to expand hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from umbilical cord blood (UCB). The team identified a protein, YTHDF2, that affects multiple targets and pathways involved in HSC self-renewal. Experiments showed that reducing the function of YTHDF2 allowed UCB HSCs to expand.... [Read Article]
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FDA advises against azithromycin use in allo-HSCT recipients

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HSCT preparation
Photo by Chad McNeeley
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning against long-term use of azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). Azithromycin has been used off-label as prophylaxis for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in these patients. However, a trial published in JAMA last year suggested... [Read Article]
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Kids may have higher risk of death long after allo-HSCT

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Smita Bhatia
Photo from UAB
Children may have an increased risk of premature death decades after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT), according to a study published in JAMA Oncology. The leading causes of death in the patients studied were infection and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), patients’ primary disease, and subsequent cancers. “This study shows... [Read Article]
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