SAN FRANCISCO—Researchers say they have identified new driver genes and oncogenic pathways in hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL).
The team found that SETD2, a known tumor suppressor, was the most frequently silenced gene in HSTL.
The researchers also found evidence suggesting the JAK-STAT and PI3K pathways could be therapeutic targets in HSTL.
The researchers collected complete clinical data on 68 HSTL cases, including 20 with normal DNA. The team performed whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics analysis, and biological characterization of these cases.
“This is the largest group of HSTL cases ever described, and the data implicate new driver genes and oncogenic pathways for the first time in HSTL,” Dr Dave said.
The data revealed that the most commonly mutated group of genes in HSTL are chromatin modifiers (SETD2, INO80, ARID1B, TET3, and SMARCA2) and signaling pathway genes (STAT5B, STAT3, and PIK3CD). Among these, STAT3, PIK3CD, and SETD2 showed the highest proportion of clonal events.
On the other hand, mutations in EZH2, KRAS, and TP53 were less frequently observed.
Common genetic abnormalities in HSTL include copy number alterations in chromosome 7, trisomy 8, loss of 10p, and gain of 1q.
A comparison of the frequencies of recurrently mutated genes in HSTL with other lymphomas demonstrated the genetically distinct profile of HSTL, wherein mutations in SETD2, INO80, TET3, and STAT5B occurred exclusively in HSTL.
SETD2, a histone lysine methyltransferase and a known tumor suppressor, was identified as the most frequently silenced gene in HSTL.
So the researchers investigated the biological effects of SETD2 loss in HSTL cells and a knockout mouse model.
While loss of SETD2 in HSTL cells resulted in increased cell proliferation, in vivo knockdown of SETD2 led to expansion of γ-δ T cells and a reduction in α-β T cells. A majority of HSTLs are known to arise predominantly from γ-δ T cells.
“These results implicate SETD2 in HSTL oncogenesis and T-cell development,” Dr Dave said.
He and his colleagues also found that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT and PI3K pathways in HSTL cells was associated with increased proliferation, and inhibition of these pathways led to reduced survival of HSTL cells. This suggests that agents targeting these pathways might be effective in treating HSTL.